This data set includes three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product per capita atnominal values, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year, converted at marketexchange rates to current U.S. dollars, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.
The figures presented here do not take into account differences in the cost of living in different countries, and the results can vary greatly from one year to another based on fluctuations in the exchange rates of the country's currency. Such fluctuations may change a country's ranking from one year to the next, even though they often make little or no difference to the standard of living of its population. Therefore these figures should be used with caution. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country'sstandard of living; although this can be problematic because GDP per capita is not a measure of personal income. See Standard of living and GDP.
Comparisons of national wealth are also frequently made on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP), to adjust for differences in the cost of living in different countries. (See List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita.) PPP largely removes the exchange rate problem, but has its own drawbacks; it does not reflect the value of economic output in international trade, and it also requires more estimation than GDP per capita. On the whole, PPP per capita figures are more narrowly spread than nominal GDP per capita figures.
Great care should be taken when using either set of figures to compare the wealth of two countries. Often people who wish to promote or denigrate a country will use the figure that suits their case best and ignore the other one, which may be substantially different, but a valid comparison of two economies should take both rankings into account, as well as utilising other economic data to put an economy in context.
Non-sovereign entities (the world, the EU, and some dependent territories) are included in the list because they appear in the sources. These economies are not ranked in the charts here, but are listed in sequence by GDP for comparison. They are marked in italics.
- The first table includes data for the year 2011 from the International Monetary Fund, including IMF members (plus Hong Kong) for which information is available.
- The second table includes data (mostly) for the year 2010 from the World Bank.
- The third table includes data from The World Factbook, provided by the US Central Intelligence Agency. Data between countries are not comparable as it may refer to different years. Figures are mostly estimates for 2010.
reference : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_(nominal)_per_capita : English
reference : http://th.wikipedia.org/wiki/ : Thai
reference : http://th.wikipedia.org/wiki/ : Thai
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN // ah-see-ahn, rarely // ah-zee-ahn) is a geo-political and economic organization of ten countries located in Southeast Asia, which was formed on 8 August 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore andThailand. Since then, membership has expanded to include Brunei, Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. Its aims include acceleratingeconomic growth, social progress, cultural development among its members, protection of regional peace and stability, and opportunities for member countries to discuss differences peacefully.
ASEAN covers a land area of 4.46 million km², which is 3% of the total land area of Earth, and has a population of approximately 600 million people, which is 8.8% of the world's population. The sea area of ASEAN is about three times larger than its land counterpart. In 2010, its combined nominal GDP had grown to US$1.8 trillion. If ASEAN were a single entity, it would rank as the ninth largest economy in the world, behind the United States, China, Japan,Germany, France, Brazil, the United Kingdom, and Italy.
ASEAN was preceded by an organisation called the Association of Southeast Asia, commonly called ASA, an alliance consisting of the Philippines, Malaysia and Thailand that was formed in 1961. The bloc itself, however, was established on 8 August 1967, when foreign ministers of five countries – Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand – met at the Thai Department of Foreign Affairs building in Bangkok and signed the ASEAN Declaration, more commonly known as the Bangkok Declaration. The five foreign ministers – Adam Malik of Indonesia, Narciso Ramos of the Philippines, Abdul Razak of Malaysia, S. Rajaratnam of Singapore, and Thanat Khoman of Thailand – are considered the organisation's Founding Fathers.
The motivations for the birth of ASEAN were so that its members’ governing elite could concentrate on nation building, the common fear of communism, reduced faith in or mistrust of external powers in the 1960s, and a desire for economic development; not to mention Indonesia’s ambition to become a regional hegemonthrough regional cooperation and the hope on the part of Malaysia and Singapore to constrain Indonesia and bring it into a more cooperative framework.
Papua New Guinea was accorded Observer status in 1976 and Special Observer status in 1981. Papua New Guinea is aMelanesian state. ASEAN embarked on a program of economic cooperation following the Bali Summit of 1976. This floundered in the mid-1980s and was only revived around 1991 due to a Thai proposal for a regional free trade area. The bloc grew whenBrunei Darussalam became the sixth member on 8 January 1984, barely a week after gaining independence on 1 January.
On 28 July 1995, Vietnam became the seventh member. Laos and Myanmar (Burma) joined two years later on 23 July 1997. Cambodia was to have joined together with Laos and Burma, but was deferred due to the country's internal political struggle. The country later joined on 30 April 1999, following the stabilisation of its government.
During the 1990s, the bloc experienced an increase in both membership and drive for further integration. In 1990, Malaysia proposed the creation of an East Asia Economic Caucus comprising the then members of ASEAN as well as the People's Republic of China, Japan, and South Korea, with the intention of counterbalancing the growing influence of the United States in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and in the Asian region as a whole. This proposal failed, however, because of heavy opposition from the United States and Japan. Despite this failure, member states continued to work for further integration and ASEAN Plus Three was created in 1997.
In 1992, the Common Effective Preferential Tariff (CEPT) scheme was signed as a schedule for phasing tariffs and as a goal to increase the region’s competitive advantage as a production base geared for the world market. This law would act as the framework for the ASEAN Free Trade Area. After the East Asian Financial Crisis of 1997, a revival of the Malaysian proposal was established in Chiang Mai, known as the Chiang Mai Initiative, which calls for better integration between the economies of ASEAN as well as the ASEAN Plus Three countries (China, Japan, and South Korea).
Aside from improving each member state's economies, the bloc also focused on peace and stability in the region. On 15 December 1995, the Southeast Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty was signed with the intention of turning Southeast Asia into a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone. The treaty took effect on 28 March 1997 after all but one of the member states have ratified it. It became fully effective on 21 June 2001, after the Philippines ratified it, effectively banning all nuclear weapons in the region.
East Timor submitted a letter of application to be the eleventh member of ASEAN at the summit in Jakarta in March 2011. Indonesia has shown a warm welcome to East Timor.
Environment and democracy
At the turn of the 21st century, issues shifted to involve a more environmental perspective. The organisation started to discuss environmental agreements. These included the signing of the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution in 2002 as an attempt to control haze pollution in Southeast Asia. Unfortunately, this was unsuccessful due to the outbreaks of the 2005 Malaysian haze and the 2006 Southeast Asian haze. Other environmental treaties introduced by the organisation include the Cebu Declaration on East Asian Energy Security, the ASEAN Wildlife Enforcement Network in 2005, and the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate, both of which are responses to the potential effects of climate change. Climate change is of current interest.
Through the Bali Concord II in 2003, ASEAN has subscribed to the notion of democratic peace, which means all member countries believe democratic processes will promote regional peace and stability. Also, the non-democratic members all agreed that it was something all member states should aspire to.
The leaders of each country, particularly Mahathir Mohamad of Malaysia, also felt the need to further integrate the region. Beginning in 1997, the bloc began creating organisations within its framework with the intention of achieving this goal. ASEAN Plus Three was the first of these and was created to improve existing ties with the People's Republic of China, Japan, and South Korea. This was followed by the even larger East Asia Summit, which included these countries as well as India, Australia, and New Zealand. This new grouping acted as a prerequisite for the planned East Asia Community, which was supposedly patterned after the now-defunct European Community. The ASEAN Eminent Persons Group was created to study the possible successes and failures of this policy as well as the possibility of drafting an ASEAN Charter.
In 2006, ASEAN was given observer status at the United Nations General Assembly. As a response, the organisation awarded the status of "dialogue partner" to the United Nations. Furthermore, on 23 July that year, José Ramos-Horta, then Prime Minister of East Timor, signed a formal request for membership and expected the accession process to last at least five years before the then-observer state became a full member.
In 2007, ASEAN celebrated its 40th anniversary since its inception, and 30 years of diplomatic relations with the United States.On 26 August 2007, ASEAN stated that it aims to complete all its free trade agreements with China, Japan, South Korea, India, Australia and New Zealand by 2013, in line with the establishment of the ASEAN Economic Community by 2015. In November 2007 the ASEAN members signed the ASEAN Charter, a constitution governing relations among the ASEAN members and establishing ASEAN itself as an international legal entity. During the same year, the Cebu Declaration on East Asian Energy Security was signed in Cebu on 15 January 2007, by ASEAN and the other members of the EAS (Australia, People's Republic of China, India, Japan, New Zealand, South Korea), which promotes energy security by finding energy alternatives to conventional fuels.
On 27 February 2009 a Free Trade Agreement with the ASEAN regional block of 10 countries and New Zealand and its close partner Australia was signed, it is estimated that this FTA would boost aggregate GDP across the 12 countries by more than US$48 billion over the period 2000–2020.
The ASEAN way
In the 1960s, the push for decolonisation promoted the independence and establishment of sovereign nations such as Indonesia and Malaysia. Since the beginning phases of these nations, efforts were made to implement independent policies with a unifying focus of refrain from interference in regional domestic affairs.
There was a move to unify the region under what was called the ‘ASEAN Way’ based on the ideals of non-interference, informality, minimal institutionalisation, consultation and consensus, non-use of force and non-confrontation. ASEAN members (especially Singapore) approved of the term ‘ASEAN Way’ to describe a regional method of multilateralism.
Thus the signing of the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia adopted fundamental principles:
- Mutual respect for the independence, sovereignty, equality, territorial integrity, and national identity of all nations
- The right of every State to lead its national existence free from external interference, subversion or coercion
- Non-interference in internal affairs
- Settlement of differences or disputes in a peaceful manner
- Renunciation of the threat or use of force
- Effective regional cooperation
The ‘ASEAN way’ is said to contribute durability and longevity within the organization, by promoting regional identity and enhancing a spirit of mutual confidence and cooperation. ASEAN agreements are negotiated in a close, interpersonal process. The process of consultations and consensus is designed to engender a democratic approach to decision making. These leaders are wary of any effort to legitimize efforts to undermine their nation or contain regional co-operation.
The ASEAN way can be seen as divergent from the contextual contemporary political reality at the formative stages of the association. A critical distinction is made by Amitav Acharya, that the ‘ASEAN Way’ indicates “a process of ‘regional interactions and cooperation based on discreteness, informality, consensus building and non-confrontational bargaining styles’ that contrasts with ‘the adversarial posturing, majority vote and other legalistic decision-making procedures in Western multilateral organizations.’"
However, critics argue[who?] that the ASEAN Way serves as the major stumbling-block to it becoming a true diplomacy mechanism. Due to the consensus-based approach every member has a veto, so contentious issues must remain unresolved until agreements can be reached. Moreover, it is claimed that member nations are directly and indirectly advocating that ASEAN be more flexible and allow discourse on internal affairs of member countries.
Additionally, the preference for informal discussions to adversarial negotiations limits the leverage of diplomatic solutions within ASEAN.
The organisation holds meetings, known as the ASEAN Summit, where heads of government of each member meet to discuss and resolve regional issues, as well as to conduct other meetings with other countries outside of the bloc with the intention of promoting external relations.
The ASEAN Leaders' Formal Summit was first held in Bali, Indonesia in 1976. Its third meeting was held in Manila in 1987 and during this meeting, it was decided that the leaders would meet every five years. Consequently, the fourth meeting was held in Singapore in 1992 where the leaders again agreed to meet more frequently, deciding to hold the summit every three years. In 2001, it was decided to meet annually to address urgent issues affecting the region. Member nations were assigned to be the summit host in alphabetical order except in the case of Burma which dropped its 2006 hosting rights in 2004 due to pressure from the United States and the European Union.
By December 2008, the ASEAN Charter came into force and with it, the ASEAN Summit will be held twice in a year.
The formal summit meets for three days. The usual itinerary is as follows:
- Leaders of member states would hold an internal organisation meeting.
- Leaders of member states would hold a conference together with foreign ministers of the ASEAN Regional Forum.
- A meeting, known as ASEAN Plus Three, is set for leaders of three Dialogue Partners (People's Republic of China, Japan, South Korea)
- A separate meeting, known as ASEAN-CER, is set for another set of leaders of two Dialogue Partners (Australia, New Zealand).
|ASEAN Formal Summits|
|1st||23–24 February 1976||Indonesia||Bali||Soeharto|
|2nd||4–5 August 1977||Malaysia||Kuala Lumpur||Hussein Onn|
|3rd||14–15 December 1987||Philippines||Manila||Corazon Aquino|
|4th||27‒29 January 1992||Singapore||Singapore||Goh Chok Tong|
|5th||14‒15 December 1995||Thailand||Bangkok||Banharn Silpa-archa|
|6th||15‒16 December 1998||Vietnam||Hanoi||Phan Văn Khải|
|7th||5‒6 November 2001||Brunei||Bandar Seri Begawan||Hassanal Bolkiah|
|8th||4‒5 November 2002||Cambodia||Phnom Penh||Hun Sen|
|9th||7‒8 October 2003||Indonesia||Bali||Megawati Soekarnoputri|
|10th||29‒30 November 2004||Laos||Vientiane||Bounnhang Vorachith|
|11th||12‒14 December 2005||Malaysia||Kuala Lumpur||Abdullah Ahmad Badawi|
|12th||11‒14 January 20071||Philippines2||Cebu||Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo|
|13th||18‒22 November 2007||Singapore||Singapore||Lee Hsien Loong|
|14th3||27 February – 1 March 2009|
10–11 April 2009
|Thailand||Cha Am, Hua Hin|
|15th||23 October 2009||Thailand||Cha Am, Hua Hin|
|16th||8–9 April 2010||Vietnam||Hanoi||Nguyễn Tấn Dũng|
|17th||28–31 October 2010||Vietnam||Hanoi|
|18th4||7–8 May 2011||Indonesia||Jakarta||Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono|
|19th4||14–19 November 2011||Indonesia||Bali|
|20th||3–4 April 2012||Cambodia||Phnom Penh||Hun Sen|
|1 Postponed from 10‒14 December 2006 due to Typhoon Utor.|
|2 hosted the summit because Burma backed out due to enormous pressure from US and EU|
|3 This summit consisted of two parts.|
The first part was moved from 12‒17 December 2008 due to the 2008 Thai political crisis.
The second part was aborted on 11 April due to protesters entering the summit venue.
|4 Indonesia hosted twice in a row by swapping years with Brunei, as it will play host to APEC (and possibly the G20summit) in 2013.|
ASEAN Summits held once or twice a year in a same venue/host nation. Example, Indonesia is the host for 2011 ASEAN Summit; all summits, formal or informal this year 2011 must be held in Indonesia.
During the fifth Summit in Bangkok, the leaders decided to meet "informally" between each formal summit:
|ASEAN Informal Summits|
|1st||30 November 1996||Indonesia||Jakarta||Soeharto|
|2nd||14‒16 December 1997||Malaysia||Kuala Lumpur||Mahathir Mohamad|
|3rd||27‒28 November 1999||Philippines||Manila||Joseph Estrada|
|4th||22‒25 November 2000||Singapore||Singapore||Goh Chok Tong|
East Asia Summit
The East Asia Summit (EAS) is a pan-Asian forum held annually by the leaders of 16 countries in East Asia and the region, with ASEAN in a leadership position. The summit has discussed issues including trade, energy and security and the summit has a role in regional community building.
The members of the summit are all 10 members of ASEAN plus China, Japan, South Korea, India, Australia and New Zealand. These nations represent nearly half of the world's population. In October 2010, Russia and the United States were formally invited to participate as full members, with presidents of both countries to attend the 2011 summit.
The first summit was held in Kuala Lumpur on 14 December 2005 and subsequent meetings have been held after the annual ASEAN Leaders’ Meeting.
|First EAS||Malaysia||Kuala Lumpur||14 December 2005||Russia attended as a guest.|
|Second EAS||Philippines||Cebu City||15 January 2007||Rescheduled from 13 December 2006.|
|Third EAS||Singapore||Singapore||21 November 2007||Singapore Declaration on Climate Change, Energy and the Environment|
Agreed to establish Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia
|Fourth EAS||Thailand||Cha-amand Hua Hin||25 October 2009||The date and location of the venue was rescheduled several times, and then a Summit scheduled for 12 April 2009 at Pattaya, Thailand was cancelled when protesters stormed the venue. The Summit has been rescheduled for October 2009 and transferred again from Phuket to Cha-am and Hua Hin.|
|Fifth EAS||Viet Nam||Hanoi||30 October 2010||Officially invited the US and Russia to participate in future EAS as full-fledged members|
|Sixth EAS||Indonesia||Bali||19 November 2011||The United States and Russia to join the Summit.|
A commemorative summit is a summit hosted by a non-ASEAN country to mark a milestone anniversary of the establishment of relations between ASEAN and the host country. The host country invites the heads of government of ASEAN member countries to discuss future cooperation and partnership.
|ASEAN – Japan Commemorative Summit||Japan||Tokyo||11, 12 December 2003||To celebrate the 30th anniversary of the establishment of relations between ASEAN and Japan. The summit was also notable as the first ASEAN summit held between ASEAN and a non-ASEAN country outside the region.|
|ASEAN–China Commemorative Summit||People's Republic of China||Nanning||30, 31 October 2006||To celebrate the 15th anniversary of the establishment of relations between ASEAN and China|
|ASEAN–Republic of Korea Commemorative Summit||South Korea||Jeju-do||1, 2 June 2009||To celebrate the 20th anniversary of the establishment of relations between ASEAN and Republic of Korea|
The ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) is a formal, official, multilateral dialogue in Asia Pacific region. As of July 2007, it is consisted of 27 participants. ARF objectives are to foster dialogue and consultation, and promote confidence-building and preventive diplomacy in the region. The ARF met for the first time in 1994. The current participants in the ARF are as follows: all the ASEAN members, Australia, Bangladesh, Canada, the People's Republic of China, theEuropean Union, India, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Mongolia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Russia, East Timor, United States and Sri Lanka. The Republic of China (also known as Taiwan) has been excluded since the establishment of the ARF, and issues regarding the Taiwan Strait are neither discussed at the ARF meetings nor stated in the ARF Chairman's Statements.
Aside from the ones above, other regular meetings are also held. These include the annual ASEAN Ministerial Meetingas well as other smaller committees. Meetings mostly focus on specific topics, such as defence or the environment,and are attended by Ministers, instead of heads of government.
The ASEAN Plus Three is a meeting between ASEAN, China, Japan, and South Korea, and is primarily held during each ASEAN Summit. Until now China, Japan and South Korea have not yet formed Free Trade Area (FTA), the meeting about FTA among them will be held at end of 2012.
The Asia–Europe Meeting (ASEM) is an informal dialogue process initiated in 1996 with the intention of strengthening cooperation between the countries of Europe and Asia, especially members of the European Union and ASEAN in particular.ASEAN, represented by its Secretariat, is one of the 45 ASEM partners. It also appoints a representative to sit on the governing board of Asia-Europe Foundation (ASEF), a socio-cultural organisation associated with the Meeting.
The ASEAN–Russia Summit is an annual meeting between leaders of member states and the President of Russia.
ASEAN Foreign Ministers Meeting
The 44th annual meeting was held in Bali on 16 to 23 July 2011. Indonesia proposed a unified ASEAN travel visa to ease travel within the region for citizens of ASEAN member states. The 45th annual meeting was held in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. For the first time in the history of ASEAN there was no diplomatic statement issued by the bloc at the end of the meeting. This was due to tensions over China's claim of ownership over near the entirety of the South China Sea and the counterclaim to such ownership by neighboring states.
ASEAN has emphasised regional cooperation in the “three pillars”, which are security, sociocultural integration, and economic integration. The regional grouping has made the most progress in economic integration by creating an ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by 2015. The average economic growths of ASEAN's member nations during 1989–2009 was Singapore with 6.73 percent, Malaysia with 6.15 percent, Indonesia with 5.16 percent, Thailand with 5.02 percent, and the Philippines with 3.79 percent. This economic growth was greater than the average Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economic growth, which was 2.83 percent.
From CEPT to AEC
A Common Effective Preferential Tariff (CEPT) scheme to promote the free flow of goods within ASEAN lead to the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA). The AFTA is an agreement by the member nations of ASEAN concerning local manufacturing in all ASEAN countries. The AFTA agreement was signed on 28 January 1992 in Singapore. When the AFTA agreement was originally signed, ASEAN had six members, namely, Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Vietnam joined in 1995, Laos and Burma in 1997, and Cambodia in 1999. The latecomers have not fully met the AFTA's obligations, but they are officially considered part of the AFTA as they were required to sign the agreement upon entry into ASEAN, and were given longer time frames in which to meet AFTA's tariff reduction obligations.
The next step is ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) with main objectives are to create a:
- single market and production base
- highly competitive economic region
- region of equitable economic development
- region fully integrated into the global economy
Since 2007, the ASEAN countries gradually lower their import duties among them and targeted will be zero for most of the import duties at 2015.
Since 2011, AEC has agreed to strengthen the position and increase the competitive edges of small and medium enterprises(SME) in the ASEAN region.
aseanblogger.com has agreed to set up online ASEAN community with aim to raise people's awareness on the issue of AEC by 2015. The content of the portal currently consisted of subjects varying from security to culinary and in the future will also touch tourist sites and local culture.
Comprehensive Investment Area
The ASEAN Comprehensive Investment Area (ACIA) will encourage the free flow of investment within ASEAN. The main principles of the ACIA are as follows
- All industries are to be opened up for investment, with exclusions to be phased out according to schedules
- National treatment is granted immediately to ASEAN investors with few exclusions
- Elimination of investment impediments
- Streamlining of investment process and procedures
- Enhancing transparency
- Undertaking investment facilitation measures
Full realisation of the ACIA with the removal of temporary exclusion lists in manufacturing agriculture, fisheries, forestry and mining is scheduled by 2010 for most ASEAN members and by 2015 for the CLMV (Cambodia, Lao PDR, Burma, and Vietnam) countries.
Trade in Services
An ASEAN Framework Agreement on Trade in Services was adopted at the ASEAN Summit in Bangkok in December 1995.Under AFAS, ASEAN Member States enter into successive rounds of negotiations to liberalise trade in services with the aim of submitting increasingly higher levels of commitments. The negotiations result in commitments that are set forth in schedules of specific commitments annexed to the Framework Agreement. These schedules are often referred to as packages of services commitments. At present, ASEAN has concluded seven packages of commitments under AFAS.
Single Aviation Market
The ASEAN Single Aviation Market (SAM), proposed by the ASEAN Air Transport Working Group, supported by the ASEAN Senior Transport Officials Meeting, and endorsed by the ASEAN Transport Ministers, will introduce an open-sky arrangement to the region by 2015. The ASEAN SAM will be expected to fully liberalise air travel between its member states, allowing ASEAN to directly benefit from the growth in air travel around the world, and also freeing up tourism, trade, investment and services flows between member states. Beginning 1 December 2008, restrictions on the third and fourth freedoms of the air between capital cities of member states for air passengers services will be removed, while from 1 January 2009, there will be full liberalisation of air freight services in the region, while By 1 January 2011, there will be liberalisation of fifth freedom traffic rights between all capital cities.
Free Trade Agreements With Other Countries
ASEAN has concluded free trade agreements with China (expecting bilateral trade of $500 billion by 2015), Korea, Japan, Australia, New Zealand and most recently India. The agreement with People's Republic of China created the ASEAN–China Free Trade Area (ACFTA), which went into full effect on 1 January 2010. In addition, ASEAN is currently negotiating a free trade agreement with the European Union. Republic of China (Taiwan) has also expressed interest in an agreement with ASEAN but needs to overcome diplomatic objections from China.
ASEAN six majors
ASEAN six majors refer to the six largest economies in the area with economies many times larger than the remaining four ASEAN countries.
The ASEAN six majors are (GDP nominal 2011 based on IMF data. The figures in parentheses are GDP PPP.)
- Indonesia: 845,680 billions (1,124 billions)
- Thailand: 345,649 billions (616 billions)
- Malaysia: 278,680 billions (447 billions)
- Singapore: 259,849 billions (315 billions)
- Philippines: 213,129 billions (390 billions)
- Vietnam: 122,722 billions (299 billions)
From CMI to AMRO
Due to Asian financial crisis of 1997 to 1998 and long and difficult negotiations with International Monetary Fund, ASEAN+3 agreed to set up a mainly bilateral currency swap scheme known as the 2000 Chiang Mai Initiative (CMI) to anticipate another financial crisis or currency turmoil in the future. In 2006 they agreed to make CMI with multilateralisation and called as CMIM. On 3 May 2009, they agreed to make a currency pool consist of contribution $38.4 billion each by China and Japan, $19.2 billion by South Korea and totally $24 billion by all of ASEAN members, so the total currency pool was $120 billion. A key component has also newly been added, with the establishment of a surveillance unit.
The ASEAN+3 Macroeconomic and Research Office (AMRO) will start its operation in Singapore in May 2011. It will perform a key regional surveillance function as part of the $120 billion of Chiang Mai Initiative Multilateralisation (CMIM) currency swap facility that was established by Finance Minister and Central Bank Governors of ASEAN countries plus China, Japan and South Korea in December 2009.
According to some analysts, the amount of $120 billion is relatively small (cover only about 20 percent of needs), so coordination or help from International Monetary Fund is still needed. On May 3, 2012 ASEAN+3 finance ministers agreed to double emergency reserve fund to $240 billion.
Foreign Direct Investment
In 2009, realized Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) was $37.9 billion and increase by two-fold in 2010 to $75.8 billion. 22 percent of FDI came form the European Union, followed by ASEAN countries themselves by 16 percent and then followed by Japan and US. European Union and US has debt problems, while Japan should make tsunami recovery. China who helped Asia lead the global post-2008 recovery still grapples with 3-years high inflation. So, in the longterm all of the problems will give negative impact to ASEAN indirectly. There are possibility to push some programs of ASEAN Economic Community before 2015.
with free visa among ASEAN countries, a huge intra-ASEAN travel occurred and on the right track to establish an ASEAN Community in the years to come. In 2010, 47 percent or 34 million from 73 million tourists were iintra-ASEAN travel.
Until end of 2010, Intra-Asean trade were still low which mainly of them were mostly exporting to countries outside the region, except Laos and Myanmar were ASEAN-oriented in foreign trade with 80 percent and 50 percent respectively of their exports went to other ASEAN countries.
On 15 December 2008 the members of ASEAN met in the Indonesian capital of Jakarta to launch a charter, signed in November 2007, with the aim of moving closer to "an EU-style community". The charter turns ASEAN into a legal entity and aims to create a single free-trade area for the region encompassing 500 million people. President of Indonesia Susilo Bambang Yudhoyonostated that "This is a momentous development when ASEAN is consolidating, integrating and transforming itself into a community. It is achieved while ASEAN seeks a more vigorous role in Asian and global affairs at a time when the international system is experiencing a seismic shift," he added, referring to climate change and economic upheaval. Southeast Asia is no longer the bitterly divided, war-torn region it was in the 1960s and 1970s." "The fundamental principles include:
a) respect for the independence, sovereignty, equality, territorial integrity and national identity of all ASEAN Member States;
b) shared commitment and collective responsibility in enhancing regional peace, security and prosperity;
c) renunciation of aggression and of the threat or use of force or other actions in any manner inconsistent with international law;
d) reliance on peaceful settlement of disputes;
e) non-interference in the internal affairs of ASEAN Member States;
f) respect for the right of every Member State to lead its national existence free from external interference, subversion and coercion;
g) enhanced consultations on matters seriously affecting the common interest of ASEAN;
h) adherence to the rule of law, good governance, the principles of democracy and constitutional government;
i) respect for fundamental freedoms, the promotion and protection of human rights, and the promotion of social justice;
j) upholding the United Nations Charter and international law, including international humanitarian law, subscribed to by ASEAN Member States;
k) abstention from participation in any policy or activity, including the use of its territory, pursued by and ASEAN Member State or non-ASEAN State or any non-State actor, which threatens the sovereignty, territorial integrity or political and economic stability of ASEAN Member States;
l) respect for the different cultures, languages and religions of the peoples of ASEAN, while emphasising their common values in the spirit of unity in diversity;
m) the centrality of ASEAN in external political, economic, social and cultural relations while remaining actively engaged, outward-looking, inclusive and non-discriminatory; and
n) adherence to multilateral trade rules and ASEAN's rules-based regimes for effective implementation of economic commitments and progressive reduction towards elimination of all barriers to regional economic integration, in a market-driven economy".
However, the ongoing global financial crisis was stated as being a threat to the goals envisioned by the charter, and also set forth the idea of a proposed human rights body to be discussed at a future summit in February 2009. This proposition caused controversy, as the body would not have the power to impose sanctions or punish countries who violate citizens' rights and would therefore be limited in effectiveness. The body was established later in 2009 as the ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR).
The organisation hosts cultural activities in an attempt to further integrate the region. These include sports and educational activities as well as writing awards. Examples of these include the ASEAN University Network, the ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity, the ASEAN Outstanding Scientist and Technologist Award, and the Singapore-sponsored ASEAN Scholarship.
ASEAN Media Cooperation
The first media cooperation and dialogue was started by China with ASEAN in 1991 and became ASEAN's dialogue partner in 1996.
The ASEAN Media Cooperation (AMC) set digital television standards, policies and create in preparation for broadcasters to transition from analog to digital broadcasting, better promote media collaboration and information exchange to enhance voice, understanding, and perspective between ASEAN peoples on the international stage.
The ASEAN member countries aim media sector towards digitalization and further regional media coaction. AMC establishes partnerships between SEAN news media, and cooperate on information sharing, photo swapping, technical cooperation, exchange programs, facilitating joint news coverage and exchange of news footage.
S.E.A. Write Award
The S.E.A. Write Award is a literary award given to Southeast Asian poets and writers annually since 1979. The award is either given for a specific work or as a recognition of an author's lifetime achievement. Works that are honoured vary and have included poetry, short stories, novels, plays, folklore as well as scholarly and religious works. Ceremonies are held in Bangkok and are presided by a member of the Thai royal family.
ASAIHL or the Association of Southeast Asian Institutions of Higher Learning is a non-governmental organisation founded in 1956 that strives to strengthen higher learning institutions, espescially in teaching, research, and public service, with the intention of cultivating a sense of regional identity and interdependence.
ASEAN Heritage Parks is a list of nature parks launched 1984 and relaunched in 2004. It aims to protect the region's natural treasures. There are now 35 such protected areas, including the Tubbataha Reef Marine Park and the Kinabalu National Park.
- The ASEAN Way – the official regional anthem of ASEAN, music by Kittikhun Sodprasert and Sampow Triudom Thailand; Lyrics by Payom Valaiphatchra Thailand.
- ASEAN Song of Unity or ASEAN Hymn, music by Ryan Cayabyab Philippines.
- Let Us Move Ahead, an ASEAN song, composed by Candra Darusman Indonesia.
- ASEAN Rise, ASEAN's 40th Anniversary song, composed by Dick Lee Singapore; lyrics by Stefanie Sun Singapore.
Education and Human Development
- The ASEAN University Network (AUN) is a consortium of Southeast Asian universities. It was originally founded in November 1995 by 11 universities within the member states. Currently AUN comprises 26 Participating Universities.
- The Southeast Asia Engineering Education Development Network (SEED-NET) Project, was officially established as an autonomous sub-network of the ASEAN University Network (AUN) in April 2001'. AUN/SEED-Net aimed at promoting human resources development in engineering in ASEAN. The Network consists of 19 leading Member Institutions (selected by the Ministries in charge of higher education of respective countries) from 10 ASEAN countries with the support of 11 leading Japanese Supporting Universities (selected by Japanese Government). AUN/SEED-Net is mainly supported by the Japanese Government through the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), and partially supported by the ASEAN Foundation. AUN/SEED-Net activities are implemented by the AUN/SEED-Net Secretariat with the support of the JICA Project for AUN/SEED-Net, now based at Chulalongkorn University, Thailand.
The ASEAN Scholarship is a scholarship program offered by Singapore to the 9 other member states for secondary school, junior college, and university education. It covers accommodation, food, medical benefits & accident insurance, school fees, and examination fees.
Southeast Asian Games
The Southeast Asian Games, commonly known as the SEA Games, is a biennial multi-sport event involving participants from the current 11 countries of Southeast Asia. The games is under regulation of the Southeast Asian Games Federation with supervision by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the Olympic Council of Asia.
ASEAN Para Games
The ASEAN Para Games is a biennial multi-sport event held after every Southeast Asian Games for athletes with physical disabilities. The games are participated by the 11 countries located in Southeast Asia. The Games, patterned after theParalympic Games, are played by physically challenged athletes with mobility disabilities, visual disabilities,
FESPIC Games/ Asian Para Games
The FESPIC Games, also known as the Far East and South Pacific Games for the persons with disability, was the biggest multi-sports games in Asia and South Pacific region. The FESPIC Games were held nine times and bowed out, a success in December 2006 in the 9th FESPIC Games in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The Games re-emerges as the 2010 Asian Para Games in Guangzhou, China. The 2010 Asian Para Games will debut shortly after the conclusion of the 16th Asian Games, using the same facilities and venue made disability-accessible. The inaugural Asian Para Games, the parallel event for athletes with physical disabilities, is a multi-sport event held every four years after every Asian Games.
The ASEAN Football Championship is a biennial Football competition organised by the ASEAN Football Federation, accredited byFIFA and contested by the national teams of Southeast Asia nations. It was inaugurated in 1996 as Tiger Cup, but after Asia Pacific Breweries terminated the sponsorship deal, "Tiger" was renamed "ASEAN".
ASEAN 2030 FIFA World Cup bid
January 2011: As a result of ASEAN Foreign ministers at Lombok meeting, they agreed bid to host the FIFA World Cup in 2030 as a single entity.
May 2011: ASEAN will go ahead with its bid for the FIFA 2030 World Cup. It was a follow up to the agreement reached in January before.
ASEAN Defense Industry Collaboration
Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand have established defense industries. To cut cost and plan to be self-sufficient by 2030, Indonesia and Malaysia have agreed to promote the creation of the ASEAN Defense Industry Collaboration (ADIC).The United States military reportedly has said that ADIC could have additional benefits beyond cost savings for ASEAN members, including facilitating a set of standards, similar to NATO, that will improve interoperability among ASEAN and U.S. militaries and increase the effectiveness of regional response to threats to Asia-Pacific peace and stability.
Non-ASEAN countries have criticised ASEAN for being too soft in its approach to promoting human rights and democracy in the junta-led Burma. Despite global outrage at the military crack-down on peaceful protesters in Yangon, ASEAN has refused to suspend Burma as a member and also rejects proposals for economic sanctions. This has caused concern as the European Union, a potential trade partner, has refused to conduct free trade negotiations at a regional level for these political reasons.International observers view it as a "talk shop", which implies that the organisation is "big on words but small on action". However, leaders such as the Philippines' Foreign Affairs Secretary, Alberto Romulo, said it is a workshop not a talk shop. Others have also expressed similar sentiment.
Head of the International Institute of Strategic Studies – Asia, Tim Huxley cites the diverse political systems present in the grouping, including many young states, as a barrier to far-reaching cooperation outside the economic sphere. He also asserts that in the absence of an external threat to rally against with the end of the Cold War, ASEAN has begun to be less successful at restraining its members and resolving border disputes such as those between Burma and Thailand and Indonesia and Malaysia.
During the 12th ASEAN Summit in Cebu, several activist groups staged anti-globalisation and anti-Arroyo rallies. According to the activists, the agenda of economic integration would negatively affect industries in the Philippines and would cause thousands of Filipinos to lose their jobs. They also viewed the organisation as imperialistic that threatens the country's sovereignty.A human rights lawyer from New Zealand was also present to protest about the human rights situation in the region in general.
- ASEAN Common Time
- ASEAN Exchanges
- ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR)
- Asia Pacific Forum
- ASEAN kecil
- Asian Monetary Unit
- Chiang Mai Initiative
- Comprehensive Economic Partnership for East Asia
- List of ASEAN countries by GDP (nominal)
- Mekong-Ganga Cooperation
- Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
- Blue card system – motor insurance scheme of ASEAN
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: ASEAN|
- ASEAN Secretariat Retrieved on 13 March 2007.
- ASEAN Regional Forum Retrieved on 13 March 2007.
- BBC Country Profile/Asean Retrieved on 13 March 2007.
- 14th ASEAN Summit
- 13th ASEAN Summit Singapore official site. Retrieved on 16 September 2007.
- 12th ASEAN Summit Retrieved on 13 March 2007.
- 11th ASEAN Summit 12 December-14, 2005, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia official site. Retrieved on 13 March 2007.
- ASEAN organisations
- ASEAN official directory of ASEAN organisations
- ASEAN Architect
- ASEAN Law Association
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- US-ASEAN Business Council
- ASEAN-China Free Trade Area